4G technology – an analysis

4G refers to the Fourth Era of cellular wireless requirements in telecommunications that may succeed it predecessors 3G 2G. It is just a high-speed broadband cellular network that offered comprehensive & secure all IP based mostly services. In line with the ITU, requirements for 4G specifications were specified by IMT-Advanced (International Portable Telecommunication-Advanced). The info rates of 4G provider for high mobility communication was set to 100 Mbps and low flexibility communication was set to 1 1 Gbps.

It targets cellular system with incredibly high data rates & the concept of seamless technology in all wireless devices. Carriers that are using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing) instead of TDMA and CDMA happen to be promoting their providers as 4G even though their data rates aren't high according to the ITU.

4G outdoor users that contain Internet access through mobile phones or smart cell phones were promised to get a targeted data acceleration of around 100 Mbps by the IMT-Advanced and the data speed for interior users such as LAN (GEOGRAPHIC AREA Network) was suppose to be around 1Gbps. This kind of higher acceleration for both resolved and mobile Internet users is actually amazing. 4G proposes scalable channel bandwidth versatility as high as 40 MHz. The network assets are dynamically applied & shared to sustain even more simultaneous users over each phone. 4G also has the opportunity to propose high QoS (Top quality of Assistance) for multimedia support and offer smooth handover heterogeneous networks. It must have the ability to offer wireless LAN roaming & interact with systems used for video recording broadcasting.

Figure 5: Seamless Interconnection of Networks in 4G [5].

The 4G architecture consists of 3 crucial regions of connectivity namely

  1. PAN (Personal Region Network)
  2. WAN (Wide Location Network
  3. Cellular Connectivity

Each device will have the ability to interact with the web based information that's altered over the network used by the device at that time. This composition can support a variety of 4G mobile devices that maintain global roaming.

In 4G networks users that become a member of the network be capable of add cellular routers to the infrastructure. Changing user patterns could be accommodated by dynamically shifting network potential & coverage. Creating extra routes as the focus of individuals is higher in one area compared to the other enables additional access to the capability of the network. Users may easily prevent congested routes by wishing to the much less congested routes. This enables the network to instantly balance the capability by increasing the network utilization. The service for all the users boost with the increase in number of users.

Need for 4G

One of the queries that come to mind when considering future 4G systems will there be need. The first request to get mobilized was tone of voice telephony, few years ago. The short concept service (SMS) was the first application to be released as a mass-market software. The hardware complexity had not been a concern at the given time along with the benefit of small bandwidth requirements. The SMS was simply just the commencement of various data services like mobile email, internet browsing etc. The main element feature in most of them was the packet based wireless networks carrying IP data in one hand and powerful terminals that could cope with these applications on the different. Although the network potential continues to be not an issue due to less quantity of users, there happen to be number of known reasons for increased bandwidth requirements later on. First, the quantity of wireless users increases exponentially resulting into an increase in bandwidth necessity. Second, the level of popularity of video recording and music downloads provides increased immensely within couple of years. The info content in a video tutorial or music is a lot more than the corresponding text but so may be the capacity requirement. Last but not the least, mobile internet sites have taken the current internet utilization to a higher level. Photo viewing sites, web sites and also video sharing sites own reshaped the internet.

The dependence on 4G comes from insufficient performances by 3G to meet up the near future needs & several incompatible benchmarks. The necessity for service portability, universal mobility & the need for hybrid networks incorporating both WLAN & cellular network design led to the invention of 4G. New modulation strategies that offered larger bandwidth by using an all IP structured network with converged info & voice capability were likely only by 4G. The chief characteristic produced by 4G was to provide accommodation for the QoS offerings that were place as requirements by the ITU.

4G technology guarantees secure, comprehensive & invulnerable IP based mobile service solutions for cellular modems, laptops, smartphones & various other mobile devices. Applications such as for example Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS), mobile Television set, wireless broadband access, training video chat, and Digital Video tutorial Broadcasting (DVB) are becoming urbanized to use a 4G network. Additional IP based providers include enhanced gaming, high quality multimedia streaming, IP telephony & really fast broadband Net could be accessed. This groundbreaking technology will have many more facilities open to users all around the world. Imagine having the ability to access information and offerings anytime, anywhere with a seamless connection in addition to receiving large quantity of information, pictures, data & video are the key aspects of 4G technology.

The future 4G networks would consists of a couple of numerous networks having IP based offerings as their common process such that the users are in charge & can choose each software and environment. The chief achievement will be integrating 4G technology with the prevailing cellular technologies with the help of advanced technologies. The primary features of 4G services that fascination the users particularly are high dynamic integration & application adaptability. This implies services are delivered & open to the users as per their preference & user's visitors, radio environment & air interfaces are all supported by 4G.

Over the years researchers have been working on means of fulfilling the above wants. Ethernet, Cellular LAN and TD-CDMA, were all backed by the established network overall. The cellular technology of 4G should be concentrating on the data-rate increase, latest air-interface. The so-called core of the technology, OWA platform should also be embedded with high-speed wireless systems and wireless mobile system.

It also needs learning how to write a history essay to,

  • Reuse many different access technologies as possible thereby implementing various functions using the IP-structured protocols and systems.
  • Provide real-time companies with high enough quality just like the current cellular networks.
  • Accessibility to services that should not be damaged by the handover interruption.

Mobile systems should have interfaces from various systems simultaneously exclusively to TDCDMA (UMTS-TDD), cellular LANs (802.11b), and set networks (Ethernet).

Be capable of accessing to routers and offer an user interface between a wired network domain and wireless. A single access router immediately mapped to an individual cell handles an IP subnet.

Provide a network operations server for mobility management, charging, Quality of Program, security and paging concerns in a set network.

Features of 4G

Features of 4G Cellular Systems:

User Personalization and Friendliness: The combination of personalization and friendliness is usually a key characteristic in 4G. The well-designed transparency allows gentleman and the device to interact normally and is well appreciated. The operator can mail the info to the user according to his/her preference or the info can even be filtered at an individual end predicated on his/her requirement. So as to address a mass market and gain a positive effect on people's lifestyle it must be kept in mind that each user really wants to feel unique and essential. Thus personalization enables an individual to configure his product and select the services according to his tastes. The combination hence confers the proper worth to the user's expense.

Heterogeneity: 4G should have a definite gain in the user's day-to-day life. This is obtained by merging the network and terminology heterogeneity, both of which contribute similarly to the efficiency of usage. With network heterogeneity, omni-directional connection and prevalent service can be obtained thereby assuring certain level of quality of service. Heterogeneity allows a user to access and perform multiple stuff simultaneously for example, if a user really wants to get tickets to a museum and pay attention to music, he can do that. Terminals in 4G may have to some common products and services out of their features due to which tailoring of the content might become necessary.

Since it is based on IP wireless connectivity, the optimization of internet is normally maximized. The circuit switching technology is certainly substituted by packet switching. The specificity of an IP, thus improve the speed along with the dependability of transfer of info. The bandwidth is just about 100Mhz and quickness of data transmission up to 1 1 Gbps.

Support: It helps multimedia, voice, video, wireless internet and other broadband offerings.

Cost Effective: Transmitting costs of varied multimedia services are incredibly low. High capacity, excessive speed and low cost per bit. Cost of leased spectrum figures in greatly in reaching profitability. For instance, the initial resistance from the expense society is usually a hindrance for WiMAX. Therefore pushes the operators to make new means of increasing capital.

Global mobility, program portability and scalable portable networks.

Seamless switching or usually referred as handover is gaining popularity. Availability of inter- and intra- technology handovers promises minimum or no interruption thereby assuring Quality of Services (QoS). This is achieved by making use of continuous transparent protection of products and services and inclusion of WiFi to OFDMA.

Better scheduling and phone admission control techniques are available.

Ad hoc networks and multi-hop networks: the independency from routers and gain access to points is an added advantage. The dynamic activation of sender and receiver nodes is comparable to a real-time program that is definitely an advantage point of 4G. As well the network topology comes into play where every node is normally contributing to the info transmission.

Mobility of users across multiple terminals and terminals across multiple technologies.

Confidentiality of both user visitors and the network control info. 4G uses the IPV6 address scheme leading to every cell having its own Ip. Interlayer protection is provided where only one layer is configured to do encryption on data.

Predecessors of 4G

LTE - Long Term Evolution

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is just one more technology under the make of 4G technology. LTE can be capable of giving a complete support to the spectrum bands. Upgrading the current 3G networks to WiMAX is complicated compared to LTE. The pre 4G technology is known as 3GPP Long Term Evolution. If a 20 MHz channel is employed LTE has a capacity of up to 50 Mbps in the uplink & 100 Mbps in the downlink.

WiMAX- Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access

WiMAX or Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a faster Wi-Fi

listed under 4G. Cell operators using the most recent spectrum bands benefits most

from the WiMAX. If a 20 MHz channel can be used WiMAX would offer info rates

up to 56 Mbps in uplink & 128 Mbps downlink.

UMB - Ultra Mobile Broadband

UMB (Ultra Cell Broadband) is based on TCP/IP networking technologies

cascaded over next generation radio system with info rates up to 280 Mbps.

The system was intended to be more proficient & strong of supplying more

services than the technologies it was suppose to replace. UMB was the

name within 3GPP2 standardization group to enhance the mobile standards

for next era applications & requirements. Qualcomm is definitely UMB's lead

sponsor ended the expansion of this technology supporting LTE rather. It

intended to accomplish data rates over 275 Mbps downstream & over 75 Mbps


Flash - OFDM

At an initial stage Flash-OFDM (Orthogonal Regularity Division Multiplexing) was said to be built-into a 4G standard.

4G Architecture

1G wireless telecommunications resulted in the invention of the primary kind of wireless cellular architecture that's still being made available from most cellular network companies. 2G could support additional users in a cell than 1G through the use of digital technology. This technology provided access to many more callers by making utilization of the same multiplexed channel. It was generally used for voice connection & also included some not a lot of low rate info features such as for example SMS (Short Messaging Provider). 2.5G gave usage of the carriers to boost the data rates with just simply software upgrades with simply just making the users acquire different handsets. 3G promised its users to provide greater bandwidth & higher info rates that grants permission to send in addition to receive more information.

All 3 generations nonetheless contain the Cellular Architecture or Star

Topology where users within that cell can gain access to a prevalent central BTS (Basic Transceivers Stations). The significant advantage is that with this architecture carriers will be able to construct nationwide systems, which the majority of the major carriers have previously done. The major disadvantages of the networks as we improvement are that as the info rate escalates the output power increases so the size of the cell should be decreased so that you can accommodate higher data costs. We would observe smaller cells as the buyers received scared with the upsurge in the output power. A number of the other disadvantages contain no load balancing, singular failure point and spectral inefficiencies.

The two very crucial characteristics of 4G technologies are:

  • End-to-End Internet Protocol
  • Peer-to-Peer Networking

An all IP network allows the users to use the same data applications that they make use of in wired systems. In peer-to-peer networking each product acts as a transceiver and a router for all the other units in the network. This architecture eliminates the failing of single node.

4G is known as an ad hoc wireless networking technology, a combination of above characteristics. 4G plays a substantial role by making it possible for users that are becoming a member of the network, the approach to add cellular routers to the prevailing infrastructure.

The use patterns for customers dynamically shifts the insurance & network capacity to be accommodate the adjustments as the users bring most of the networks with them. The users congregate leading to high demands of usage that also enables usage of the network capacity as they create additional routes for each and every other. They tend to immediately skip from congested routes to lesser-congested routes. This authorizes the network to automatically balance capacity resulting in a rise in network utilization. The user device that work as router are essentially part of the infrastructure. So instead of carriers reducing the cost of devices they basically minimized and deployed the network of the carrier.

4G Portable Network Architecture

Each user interprets 4G mobile communications differently. For a few its purely provides bigger data prices to radio interfaces but for other it is internetworking of wireless LAN and cellular technology. To be able to accommodate site visitors demand foreseen in an economically feasible way , 4G mobile networks must accomplish manifold increase in capacity compared to its forerunner. Mobile systems are planned for circuit switched voice until now. Fourth Technology wireless architecture was organized as heterogeneous infrastructure comprising distinctive access devices in a corresponding way. The user supporting personal agents loves unrestricted and ubiquitous connectivity to different applications over the available network. The amount below illustrates potential 4G portable network architecture including cellular, satellite radio, ad-hoc and spot components.

A BSC (Foundation Station Controller) accumulates calls from several base stations, enables handoffs, allot radio channels between BS (Basic Station) and hands over phone calls to a more central mobile switching middle. The emerging data systems overlie the existing voice architecture. With the upsurge in the data visitors this architecture has turned out to be cumbersome & complicated to be managed with countless network entities.

The architecture contains prevalent core Network linked to different wireless and wired networks. It is then linked to PSTN (People Switched Phone Network)/ISDN (Integrated Providers Digital Network) via GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node). GGSN is the chief component of the GPRS (Standard Packet Radio Assistance) network. The GGSN is definitely in charge of internetworking between packet switched systems and GPRS network such as Internet.

This architecture is linked to 2G via SGSN(Serving GPRA Support Node) from BSC. SGSN is usually in charge of distribution of data packets to and from cellular stations within its physical assistance area. Wireless communication is certainly facilitated between UE (User Equipment) and the network by a bit of equipment referred to as BTS (Base Transreceiver Station).

The connection to 3G is definitely through SGSN towards Node B via RNC (Radio Network Controllers). In 2G systems, Node B is equivalent to BTS. RNC replaces BSC and connects to various networks such as for example Ad-hoc mobile systems and WLAN access networks. Signaling protocols like SIP (Session Initiation Process) are extensively employed for setting up and tearing multimedia interaction sessions like training video and voice cell phone calls above the Internet.

The future of cellular communication systems will face problems in incorporating and integrating numerous wireless technologies and mobile architectures to achieve flawless cellular infrastructure. Networking technology, possesses accepted that wireless or wired networks can interface with the key over the IP process.

IPv6 4G Network Architecture

The 4G architecture that supports flawless flexibility between distinctive access technology has an IPv6 based network architecture. Handovers between inter-technology must be supported else mobility problems will occur. IP network architecture gets rid of the voice-centric composition from the network. Rather than packet info overlaying on voice network separate, relatively easy data architecture can be implemented which gets rid of multiple factors from the network. BSC functions are equally distributed among mass media gateway router and BS over WAN. These include Radio Bearer control, dynamic allocations and radio learning resource management that are managed by base stations whereas gateway router handles distribution of paging text messages and security.

Ethernet- 802.3 is employed for grant wired gain access to and Ethernet -802.11 is utilized for LAN access. The air interface W-CDMA of UMTS is used extensively for cellular gain access to. This arises the need for flexibility to be applied in the network level as it can't be handled by the low layers. IPv6 mechanism is utilized for internetworking eliminating the necessity to use internal procedure for handover over any technology. This clarifies that no inner procedures happen to be sustained in W-CDMA cells but the same IP process facilitates the motion among the cells.

The body above illustrates a few handover potential in that network to accommodate a moving consumer. The users can handover among some of theses technologies without splitting the network interconnection and also supporting tone of voice connections. The users contain the possibility to wander between administrative domains while having the ability to use their companies across domains. There should be appropriate agreements among the existing domains. The service providers have the capability to track the consumption of their consumers both on and off their network like while roaming.

The entire network inclusive of all management functions and applications was being utilized with the IPv6 protocol over the Linux environment. AAAC and QoS subsystems had been responsible for providing provider to each user in line with the SLA (Service Level Contract). The program for these was expanded resorting to a mixture of existing implementations and newly included modules.

The 4 administrative domains happen to be depicted in the amount with various access technologies. An AAAC (Authentication, Authorization, Auditing and Charging) program manages each administrative domain. "At least one network gain access to control entity, the QoS Broker, is necessary per domain. Due to the requirements of full service control by the supplier, all the handovers are explicitly managed by the management infrastructure through IP-based protocols, even though they are intra- technology, such as for example between two different Gain access to Things in 802.11, or between two several Radio Network Controllers in WCDMA" [7]. The network providers are in charge of all the network resources while the user control their local network, applications and terminal.

The key characteristics of this network architecture are :

A User : It identifies a business or a person with SLA constricted with a company for certain set of services. The architecture can be involved about granting usage of the users rather than specific terminals.

MT (Mobile Terminal) : It is the terminal that gives usage of the users for companies. The network architecture can support terminal portability leading to the sharing of the terminal among various users though not as well.

AR (Access Router) : Here is the generic mode of connection to the network that gets the name of RG (Radio Gateway) for basically wireless gain access to.

PA (Paging Agent) : it is accountable for situating MT when it is idle and there are packets that require to be sent to it.

QoS Broker : it is solely accountable for managing a number of AR's. the AAAC system provides information that is utilized to regulate user access and access rights.

AAAC System : It is responsible for SLA incorporating charging and accounting.

NMS (Network Management Program) : It is responsible for general network control and supervision. This entity guarantees and manages the accessibility of information in the main network.

This network is normally proficient of supporting more than a few functions namely :

Confidentiality both of consumer traffic and of the network control information

QoS amounts guaranties to traffic flows

Inter-operator details interchange for multiple-operator scenarios

Mobility of terminals across multiple technologies

Mobility of users across multiple terminals

IMT-Advanced Network Architecture

The ITU specified IMT-Advanced (International Mobile phone Telecommunications Advanced) features for 4G standards. The info rate requirements for 4G provider was set at 100 Mbps for high-level flexibility conversation and 1 Gbps for low-level mobility interaction. Pre-4G technologies such as for example WiMAX and LTE have been in the market for a while. The most up to date version of these technologies do not accomplish the ITU requirements for 4G service. IMT-Advanced in compliance with the above 2 technologies are still under development and are namely called

  • LTE-Advanced
  • WirelessMan-Advanced

The shape above illustrates the perception of a unified architecture produced by IMT-Advanced network developed on IP as the normal layer protocol. This interface facilitates offerings that allow the application of communication systems by the yet to get developed gadgets. With significant advancements in access speeds preferred applications in wire series can be transferred under wireless networks in a similar flawless way.

Application of 4G:

Virtual Existence : 4G would provide end user services to its users at all times irrespective of the fact that the user is on or offsite. The positioning applications of 4G would maintain a virtual database containing graphical representations and physical characteristics of urban centers. This database can be accessed by users from everywhere through the use of appropriate wireless apparatus, which would give the platform to seem virtual.

Tele-medicine : 4G would create a system to monitor the health of people remotely through video-conferencing with the capability for doctor's assistance at anywhere and whenever.

Crisis-Management Applications: Pure disasters resulting in the break down of entire communications infrastructure must be restored as fast as possible. In general it may take about a about a week to revive the services with 4G the communication services can be re-established in a few hours.

Virtual Navigation: It will provide digital navigation to users to ensure that they are able to access virtual data source to visualize the inner design of buildings. It needs high speed of transmission.

Tele-Geo Processing Applications: It could integrate GPS (Global Positioning System) and GIS (Geographical Facts Systems) rendering the users with position querying.

Education: 4G would provide the opportunity to the people across the globe to keep on-line education in a cost effective manner.

Multimedia-Video Services: 4G wireless technology is anticipated to deliver high data rates of multimedia services proficiently. There are two different types of video services: Streaming video recording and Bursting. Streaming is employed only how to write a theme essay for college for real-time solutions and bursting is used for file download using a buffer and can take advantage of the entire available bandwidth.

An appropriate alternative for operators who want to attain monetary and technical proficiency within their upgrade path will be combining the 2G-3G with 4G network capabilities. A SGSN+MME node and a GGSN+SGW+PGW node can become a node for both 2G/3G and a 4G network. There are numerous solutions that offer overall flexibility to sparate functions when the traffic grows. 4G evolutions could be eased out by slowly but surely converting the existing systems into an integrated 2G/3G/4G system and then finally to a 4G system. LTE and SAE requirements are ardently followed. This solution, up to now provided by Cisco allows one to benefit from the advantages of the existing system together with the augmentation of 4G in order that operators can still use the present system if so when desired. It can support 2G/3G today and through a program upgrade these solutions can support 4G functionality as well when LTE systems are deployed. Cisco claims that "operators do not need to carry out forklift upgrades when evolving to 4G". Existing SGSN,GGSN, or PDG can be upgraded to 4G practical components - MME,SGW,PGW, and ePDG through the answer. The living of a software upgrade solution to change from 2G/3G to 4G displays the compatibility of 4G with 2G/3G.

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